How would you describe the Canadian Shield? Many of the small towns and villages scattered throughout northern Ontario and Qubec were founded around pulp and paper mills and other forestry-related activities (e.g., Atikokan, Ontario). Home Page. Some of the ancient mountain ranges can still be recognized as a ridge or belt of hills, but the present appearance of the physical landscape of the Canadian Shield is not so much a result of the folding and faulting and compression of the rocks millions of years ago as it is the work of ice in relatively recent geologic time. 8 Apr. These weathering processes were interrupted by a number of ice ages occurring over the last 2.5 million years. The area is dominated by coniferous forests, particularly spruce, interspersed with vast wetlands, mostly bogs and fens. The Canadian Shield: The Canadian Shield is a North American geological phenomenon of exposed bedrock made up of igneous and metamorphic rock. It forms the North American Craton (or Laurentia), the ancient geologic core of the North American continent. The Canadian Shield is so large that the climate varies across it. It has over 150 volcanic belts (now deformed and eroded down to nearly flat plains) that range from 600 to 1,200 million years old. Canadas first diamond mine called Ekati opened there in 1998. Transitional between the tundra and the boreal forests is the Northern Canadian Shield Taiga ecoregion, characterized by low-lying bushes because of the increasingly severe weather and unsuitable soil conditions (WWF, 2001). Canada has seven climatic regions or zones: the Arctic, Subarctic, Prairie, Great Lakes, Cordilleran, plus the East and West Coasts. The growing season is only 60 days in duration. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. The Coast Mountains puncture cloud cover and force wet, westerly winds upwards, with some areas experiencing up to 170 inches a year of precipitation. What is thought to influence the overproduction and pruning of synapses in the brain quizlet? [8] The multitude of rivers and lakes in the region is classical example of a deranged drainage system, caused by the watersheds of the area being disturbed by glaciation and the effect of post-glacial rebound. Climate is not only wholly dependent on these regions, however. The national capital Ottawa is located in Ontario bordering Quebec. What is the climate in Canadian Shield? This is the Athapaskan "land of little sticks" that stretches from Labrador to Alaska and from Siberia to Scandinavia. The Canadian Shield is part of an ancient continent called Arctica, which was formed about 2.5 billion years ago. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. Climate data web site is a gateway to information on matters such as past weather, climate normals, historical radar, almanac averages and extremes, and engineering climate data. Web. It is the Earth's greatest area of exposed Archean rock. As the exposed part of the North American puzzle piece, the Canadian shield is made of hard rock, both igneous (formed by the rapid cooling of liquid rock) and metamorphic (rock that has been changed by enormous heat and pressure). Globally, the presence of the Rockies pushes wind south. Wet deposition causes erosion that affects ecosystems. During the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago), the vast continental glaciers that covered northern North America had this region as a centre. Here it collects warm, moist air before continuing across the continent and towards Europe, where these winds are believed to be the reason for Norways warmer temperatures than other regions along the same latitude. Learn why climate models are run over the historical period and how you can access this data. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. While the area still suffers strong winds, the incidence of cyclones is greatly reduced. Desert. The region gets around 18 inches of rain each year. This region has short summers. The North American craton is the bedrock forming the heart of the North American continent and the Canadian Shield is the largest exposed part of the craton's bedrock. Composed almost entirely of volcanic rock, often exposed to the elements or with a thin layer of topsoil, the Canadian Shield is one of the most defining geographic features of Canada. All rights reserved. Shaped like a horseshoe or the shields carried during hand-to-hand combat the Canadian Shield extends from Labrador in the east to include nearly all of Qubec, much of Ontario and Manitoba, the northern portion of Saskatchewan, the northeast corner of Alberta, much of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut and into the Arctic Archipelago. Canada has seven climatic regions or zones: the Arctic, Subarctic, Prairie, Great Lakes, Cordilleran, plus the East and West Coasts. Learn about Canadas weather station monitoring network and how long-term observations from these stations help build Canadas climate record. [16] The Canadian Shield also contains the Mackenzie dike swarm, which is the largest dike swarm known on Earth.[17]. (See also Geological Survey of Canada. Learn why uses an ensemble of 24 climate models to get a better grasp of what the future may look like. Vegetation. Spanning the width of North America, Canada is the worlds second largest country after Russia, and home to a diverse topography that ranges from deserts to tundra, plus coastlines that rim not only the Great Lakes but also three of the worlds five oceans. The average temperatures range from 59 degrees F (15 degrees C) in the summer to -31 degrees F (-35 degrees C) in winter. The mountain region itself experiences year round snow in high elevations, significant rain on the western windward side and minimal precipitation on the leeward side resulting in a south-western desert landscape. The southern temperate regions receive up to 1016mm (40) of rainfall evenly throughout the year. 3 What kind of climate does the Canadian Shield have? Tundra typically prevails in the northern regions. The kimberlite pipes in which the diamonds are found are closely associated with cratons, which provide the deep lithospheric mantle required to stabilize diamond as a mineral. Low level haze. 4 How many hours of Daylight does the Canadian Shield have? 2018 2023 ), The Canadian Shield refers to the exposed portion of the continental crust underlying the majority of North America. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Winters in the Canadian Shield are fantastic for skiing and building snowmen. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. [3] As a deep, common, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada, the Shield stretches north from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, covering over half of Canada and most of Greenland; it also extends south into the northern reaches of the United States. The Canadian Shield is a large area of exposed precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rock. Lakes are largely the result of glacial erosion during the last ice age. Ont., which is 7 miles from Ottawa. The rest of the region has coarse soil that does not hold moisture very well and is frozen all year round. Common coniferous trees include white and black spruce; jack, red, white and eastern white pine; balsam fir; tamarack; eastern hemlock; and eastern red cedar. Omissions? Later, beginning in the mid-1800s, railway construction meant blasting through Canadian Shield rock, exposing valuable minerals in the process. In addition to fish, lakes are often spotted with a mix of waterfowl including wood ducks, Canada geese and American black ducks. Introduction to Decision Making Using Climate Scenarios, Understanding Ranges in Climate Projections, Understanding Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). The boreal ecozone principally spans 8 countries: Canada, China, Finland, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Ejecta from the meteorite impact was found in the Rove Formation in May 2007. The Canadian Shield is covered by boreal forests in the south. provides historical climate simulations from 24 climate models developed by scientists from around the world. It snows approximately nine months a year, leaving three months for a cool, short summer(average temperature 14.8C). Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons: Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall. Who wrote the song The Maple Leaf Forever? These processes include erosion, glaciation and plate tectonics. The Canadian Shield is so large that the climate varies across it. Find out which ones could be most relevant to you. The taiga is characterized by a cold, harsh climate, low rate of precipitation (snow and rain), and short growing season. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Today, Saskatchewan is the sole producer of Canadian uranium, primarily from the Cigar Lake area. Unique geographic features and formations can significantly impact the climate in an area. The North American craton is the bedrock forming the heart of the North American continent and the Canadian Shield is the largest exposed part of the craton's bedrock. Mammals. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks ( geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent ( the North American Craton or Laurentia ). Canada's growth rate has been anywhere between 0.8% and 1.2% for the past ten years. Most often they are bordered by belts of folded Cambrian rocks. The climate in the boreal forest is characterized by long, very cold, dry winters and short, cool, moist summers. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Applachian impact of climate change, Appalachian province, Cordillera province and more. provides high-resolution climate data to help decision makers build a more resilient Canada. With the exception of the Canadian Shield, the rocks of the North American Craton are buried deep within the continent and covered by soil and other material. Learn how to manage uncertainty related to greenhouse gas emissions by using emissions scenarios. Source: Geological Survey of Canada, photograph number 2001-079. Summers are short, lasting maybe 50 to 100 days without frost. In the northernmost part, a city such as Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, will experience a dry, cold climate most of the year. 2 What are the main biomes of Florida? Most temperate forests dont get as much rainfall as tropical rainforests, but they do get enough rainabout 30 to 60 inches each yearto grow big trees. The Canadian prairies generally receive about 12 to 15 inches of annual precipitation in the semi-arid areas, while the continental regions receive a bit more, averaging 16 to 20 inches a year. Sitemap. First Nations-Clothing An Animal Hide 22. 4 degrees F (-18 degrees C), and in the summer it is 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). The resulting surface consists of rocky, ice-smoothed hills with an average relief of 30 metres (100 feet), together with irregular basins, which are mostly filled by lakes or swamps. Like weather, as glaciers grow and move they also smooth the landscape, as well as move sediment. apart from forestry, what other important industry is found in the shield today mining industry what is unusual about the climate of the western cordillera it has a maritime clime strongly influenced by the closeness of large body of water. This is one of the largest-known meteorite impact craters on Earth, though not as large as the Sudbury crater; it is currently ranked 5th, while Sudbury is 3rd. Click Hereto learn more about the CCCS services. In the southern parts, the climate is seasonal; the average temperature in the winter is -.4 degrees F (-18 degrees C), and in the summer it is 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). It is hot and rainy. The current surface expression of the shield is one of very thin soil on top of the bedrock, with many bare outcrops. Also known as: Canadian continental shield, Canadian-Greenland Shield, Laurentian Shield, Precambrian Shield. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. Canada's Rocky Mountains influence climate as far away as Norway. Learn More Location based summaries Human beings, which have a role as stewards of creation, have a deep curiosity to understand nature, and this is reflected in identifying the Canadian Shield and its ecological and scientific values. The northeastern portion, however, became tilted up so that, in northern Labrador and Baffin Island, the land rises to more than 1,500 metres (5,000 feet) above sea level. Did you know that because of the extreme climate growing season lasts from 60 - 120 days, so book your trip soon! The nearby but less-known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. At 5 million km2, the Shield makes up roughly 50 per cent of Canadas land mass. 4 Is Florida a deciduous forest?What biome is South Florida? The Archean is set at the time period beginning with the formation of the earth's crust and the oldest earth rocks 3.8-3.96 billion years ago and extending to the Proterozoic, 2.5 billion years ago. This is because the Canadian Shield has unusually large areas of relatively exposed rock from the Archean eon, roughly 2.5 to 4 billion years ago. For a plain-language summary, please see Canadian Shield (Plain Language Summary).). This arrangement was caused by severe glaciation during the ice age, which covered the Shield and scraped the rock clean. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Updates? The Midwestern Canadian Shield forests that run westwards from Northwestern Ontario have boreal forests that give way to taiga in the most northerly parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The human population tends to be scarce in the taiga, but many mammals are present in the area, such as caribou, wolverines, weasels, minks, otters, grizzlies, and black bears. Quebec is a city with a significant rainfall. The traditional calendar seasons, as defined by the . Climate refers to the average weather in an area. APPALACHIAN REGION Climate This region is affected by 2 currents, the Labrador current and the Gulf Stream. Given their size and depth, the lakes gain heat in the summer months and release it during the winter. Weathered Precambrian pillow lava in the Temagami Greenstone Belt, Folded Precambrian gneiss of the Canadian Shield in Georgian Bay, Ontario, Typical Canadian Shield landscape: spruce, lakes, bogs, and rock. What type of climate characterizes the boreal northern forest biome temperature rainfall? Climate in the tundra regions is too cold for trees to grow, summers are cool and short, and the region is dry. If you have any comment, feedback or need support, please contact us. While at times a barrier to settlement, the Shield has also yielded great resources, including minerals, coniferous forests and the capacity for hydroelectric developments. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Few trees grow here, and farming is not practical. The highest temperature recorded was 113 F (45 C) at Midale and Yellow Grass, both in Saskatchewan, in 1937. The main regions of Canada are the mountainous west coast, flat central prairies, eastern forested plains, and frozen north.Almost every region in Canada is home to an abundance of forests, rivers, and lakes. Floods are the most frequent natural hazard in Canada. In geology, a shield is generally a large area of exposed Precambrian crystalline igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that form tectonically stable areas and that normally form the nucleus of continents. First remeasurement (2017) estimate of Canada's forest area. This process is known as the winterization of summer. The kimberlite eruptions then bring the diamonds from over 150 kilometres (93mi) depth to the surface. The Canadian coastline is more than 150,000 miles long. Southern Ontario is one of the densest regions in the country. One of the largest of these mountain-making events was the Grenville Orogeny. The climate in the Canadian Shield varies through its vast scenery and location. ISBN links support NWE through referral fees,, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The Canadian Shield refers to the exposed portion of the continental crust underlying the majority of North America. Precipitation comes in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail. The high pressures and temperatures at those depths provided ideal conditions for mineralization. In the Arctic the presence of sea ice on the ocean interacts with the atmosphere, limiting the ability of wind to create large waves or exchange heat, vapor, or gasses between the land and sea. Climate is not only wholly dependent on these regions, however. . Locations. The Canadian Shields most notable physical features are thousands of small lakes, thin layers of soil and rolling hills. The UN has warned that the world needs to . Here it is not the presence of geographical features, but the lack of them, that impacts the climate. The magnitude of the impacts of climate change on the Canadian economy is thus difficult to predict. It is covered with relatively thin layers of soil, gravel, etc. . Summer temperatures in the city are not as hot and the winter temperatures are not as cold as others. Learning from Indigenous people, coureurs de bois, voyageurs and explorers used the birchbark canoe to travel and trade along the Shields many waterways. Running nearly 1,000 miles down the Pacific coast from the Yukon to the Fraser valley, this jagged chain features steep slopes, glaciers, and jutting fjords as long as 120 miles. Forest-land - land spanning more than 0.5 hectares where the tree canopy covers more than 10% of the total land area and the trees can grow to a height of more than 5 metres. Why is the boreal forest important to Canada? Some of the regions natural resources include timber, such as maple, birch, aspen, fir and spruce; water from rivers and lakes created by long-retreated glaciers; and minerals, such as titanium, uranium, copper, iron, nickel, gold, zinc, silver, platinum and diamonds. Unique geographic features and formations can significantly impact the climate in an area. Typical Canadian Shield: pines, lakes, bogs, and rock. The Canadian Shield constitutes the largest mass of . This massive geographic feature, which some believe was formed by an asteroid collision, significantly impacts the surrounding climate. The terrain consists of tundra except in mountainous regions of the east. into Greenland, Laurentia, Scotland, and Siberia, and is now roughly situated in the Arctic around the current North Pole. It[clarification needed] was split[when?] The Canadian Shield is dominated by the boreal forest ecosystem. Typical Canadian Shield: pines, lakes, bogs, and rock. This arrangement was caused by severe glaciation during the last ice age, which covered the shield and scraped the rock clean. What is the annual precipitation in Canada? The climate in the Canadian Shield varies through its vast scenery and location. The first prokaryote fossils trace to this time period, and it is speculated that this geologic period encompassed the first development of an oxygen atmosphere and the first appearance of eukaryotes. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. Other evidence of past glacial structures include striations (lines scraped into rocks) and drumlins (long hills of glacial sediment). The Canadian Shield makes up about 50 per cent of Canada. Around the same time, silver was discovered near Cobalt , Ontario, in 1903. Learn about emissions scenarios to consider a range of possible futures and minimize risk. Plate tectonics refers to the movement and collision of the Earths outer crust. D ue to all of these facts, Vancouver can . The Canadian Shield stretches from Labrador to the Arctic. Other birds include boreal owls , great horned owls, blue jays and white-throated sparrows, while mammals include caribou, deer, wolves, lynx, moose, black bears and beavers . While at times a barrier to settlement, the Shield has also yielded great resources, including minerals, coniferous forests and the capacity for hydroelectric developments.